The Evolution of Word Wide Web – WWW

Introduction

World Wide Web (WWW) is the system of interlinked hypertext documents containing text, images, audio, videos, animation and more. User can view and navigate through these documents using hyperlinks or navigation elements which have references to another document or to the section of the same document. In a broader sense “The World Wide Web is the universe of network-accessible information, an embodiment of human knowledge.”

History of World Wide Web

WWW was first proposed in 1990 by Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau while working at the CERN, the European Council for Nuclear Research. Both of them came out with their individual proposal for Hypertext systems and later on they united and offered joint proposal. The term “Word Wide Web” was first introduced in that joint proposal. The history of every invention has lot of pre-history. Similarly the World Wide Web has also lot of pre-historical gradual development of hypertext system and internet protocols which made the WWW possible. The gradual development started in the early 1945, with the development of Memex, a device based on microfilms for storing huge amount of documents and facilitating organizing those documents. Later in 1968 “Hypertext” was introduced, which made linking and organization of documents fairly easy. In 1972 DARPA (Defense Advance Research Project Agency), started project that connect all research centers to facilitate data exchange which later adopted for military information exchange. In 1979 SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) was invented to enable sharing of documents for large government project by separating content from the presentation and thereby enabling same document to be rendered in different ways. In 1989 Tim Berners-lee came out with Networked Hypertext system form CERN Laboratory. In 1990, joint proposal for hyper text system was presented and the term “World Wide Web” first introduced. In 1992 first portable browser was released by CERN, and that had picked up industry interest in internet development. Today web is so much popularized and has grown to be so invaded in to our lives; it becomes almost impossible to imagine the World without web.

Web Evolution – What and How?

Each technology has certain distinguished characteristics and features. Similarly web has certain features such as data, services, mess-up, APIs, social platform and more. These features are continuously and progressively evolving in distinct stages with qualitative improvements over the existing. Web evolution is categorized and hyped with some fancy marketing terms like “Web 1.0”, “Web 2.0”, “Social Web”, “Web 3.0”, “Pragmatic Semantic Web”, “Pragmatic Web” and many more.

Yihong Ding, PHD candidate at Brigham Young University, in his article on “Evolution of Web” explained the development of Web by analogically comparing it with the human growth. Yihong Ding stated “The relationship between web pages and their webmasters is similar to the relationship between children and their parents. As well as parents raise their children, webmasters maintain and update their web pages. Human children have their normal stages of development, such as the newborn stage, pre-school stage, elementary-school stage, teenage stage, and so on. Analogically, web has its generations, such as Web 1.0, Web 2.0, and so on.”

Along with technological advancement web design also changed over the period of time. Initial design was simple hypertext read only system which allowed users to read the information. User was just a viewer of what is presented on the web. Gradually images and tables added with evolution of HTML and web browsers, which allowed making better design. Development of photo-editing tools, web authoring tools and content management tools enabled designer to begin creating visually appealing website design layouts. In the next phase of development, web design changed with the change in usability and the focus is diverted on the users rather than the content of the website. User interaction and social touch is applied to the web design. Now user is not just a viewer. User can drive the web with feedback, information sharing, rating and personalization. Gradually we got the mature blend of function, form, content and interaction, called Read/Write Web. Continuing this evolution, meaning is added to the information presented on the web so that online virtual representatives of human can able to read and interprets the presented information. This kind of web where user agent imitating human behavior, can read and understand the information using artificial intelligence is called semantic web.

Web 1. 0 (Read Only Web)

World Wide Web is evolved in stages. First stage was the basic “Read Only” hypertext system also termed as Web 1.0 since the hype of Web 2.0. In fact in the original proposed web model, Tim Berners-Lee envisioned web as the Read/Write Model with HTTP PUT and HTTP DELETE method. These methods were almost never used just because of security reasons.

Some of the Characteristics of Web 1.0

1. In Web 1.0 web master is constantly engaged with responsibility of managing the content and keeps user updating. Majority of hyperlinks to the contents are manually assigned by the web master.

2. Web 1.0 does not support mass-publishing. The content on the website is published by the web master and thereby does not leverage the collective intelligence of users.

3. Web 1.0 uses basic hyper text mark up language for publishing content on the internet.

4. Web 1.0 pages do not support machine readable content. Only human who are web readers can understand the content.

5. Web 1.0 provides contact information (email, phone number, fax or address) for communication. Users have to use the off-line world for further communication with this contact information.

6. In Web 1.0, web pages are designed to react instinctively based on the programmed condition. Specific result or response is generated when the programmed condition is satisfied. Web 1.0 model does not understand remote request and can not prepare response for potential request in advance. To clearly understand above characteristics of web 1.0, Yihong Ding in his article on “Evolution of World Wide Web” has analogically correlated World of Web 1.0 with the world of a Newborn baby.

Newborn Baby : I have parents

Web-1.0 Page : Webmasters

Newborn Baby : Watch me, but I won’t explain

Web-1.0 Page : Humans understand, machines don’t

Newborn Baby : Talk to my parents if you want to discuss about me

Web-1.0 Page : Contact information (email, phone number, fax, address, …)

Newborn Baby : My parents decide who my friends are. Actually, I don’t care

Web-1.0 Page : Manually specified web links

Newborn Baby : Hug me, I smile; hit me, I cry (conditional reflex)

Web-1.0 Page : Reactive functions on web pages

Source: Analogy from the Article by Yihong Ding from http://www.deg.byu.edu/ding/WebEvolution/evolution-review.html#w1:1 “The web 1.0 pages are only babies.

Web 2. 0 (Read Write Web)

“Web 2.0 is the understanding that the network is the platform and on the network is platform roles for the business is different. And the cardinal role is user adds value. And figuring out how to built database and things to get better so that more people use that and it’s the secret of web 2.0.

Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the internet as platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform.”[4]

In Web 2.0 the idea of Consumer (Users) and Producer (Web Master) is dissolving. Web 2.o is more about communications and user interactions. Web 2.0 is all about participation. “Content is the King” often cited quote during early web 1.0 days, is now turned in to “User is the King” in Web 2.0. In web 2.0 users communicates through blogging, wikis and social networking websites. Everything on the web is tagged, to facilitate easy and quick navigation. Web 2.0 is also about combining it all in one single page by means of tagging and AJAX with better usability via lots of white space, and a cleaner layout. The API ability makes it possible for programmers to mash up data feeds and databases to cross reference information from multiple sources in one page. In contrast with web 1.0, web 2.0 has collective intelligence of millions of users.

Web 2.0 is all about improved version of World Wide Web with changing role and evolving business model where users learned to communicate with the other users instead of just communicating with the publisher of the content.

Some of the Characteristics of Web 2.0

1. Web 2.0 is the second version of Web providing RIA (Rich Internet Application) by bringing in the desktop experience such as “Drag and Drop” on the webpage in browser.

2. SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) is the key piece in Web 2.0. Buzzwords around SOA are Feeds, RSS, web services and mash up, which defines how Web 2.0 application exposes functionality so that other applications can leverage and integrate those functionalities providing much richer set of applications.

3. Web 2.0 is the Social web. Web 2.0 Application tends to interact much more with the end user. End users are not only the users of the application but also the participants whether by tagging the content, whether he is contributing to the wiki or doing podcast for blogging. Due to the Social nature of application end user is the interval part of the data for the application, proving feedbacks and allowing application to leverage that user going to use it.

4. In Web 2.0 philosophy and strategy is that “The Web is open”. Content is available to be moved and changed by any user. Web site content is not controlled by the people who made the web site but by the user who are using the web site.

5. In Web 2.0 Data is the driving force. Users are spending much more time online and started generating content in their passive time. Web 2.0 requires some of the key technologies to be used in the development of web pages. One of the important technologies is the AJAX which supports development of rich user experience.

6. Web 2.0 websites typically include some of the following key technologies.

– RSS (Really Simple Syndication), which allows users to syndicate, aggregate and to set up the notification of the data using feeds.

– Mashups, which makes it possible to merge the content from different sources, allowing new form of reusing of the information via public interface or APIs.

– Wikis and Forums to support user generated content.

– Tagging, which allows users to specify and attach human readable keyword to web resource.

– AJAX – Asynchronous Java Script and XML, which is the web development technique, allowing exchange of interactive data behind the scene without reloading the web page.

To clearly understand above characteristics of web 2.0, Yihong Ding in his article on “Evolution of World Wide Web” has analogically correlated World of Web 2.0 with the world of a Pre-School Kid.

Pre-School Kid : I have parents

Web-2.0 Page : Webmasters (blog owners)

Pre-School Kid : Parents teach me knowledge (though often not well organized)

Web-2.0 Page : Tagging

Pre-School Kid : I understand but maybe imprecise and incorrect

Web-2.0 Page : Folksonomy

Pre-School Kid : I can deliver and distribute messages, especially for my parents

Web-2.0 Page : Blogging technology

Pre-School Kid : Who my friends are is primarily determined by my parents’ social activities and their teaching

Web-2.0 Page : Social network

Pre-School Kid : Multiple of us can be coordinated to do something beyond individual’s capabilities

Web-2.0 Page : Web widget, mashup

Pre-School Kid : I can do suggestion based on my communication with friends

Web-2.0 Page : Collective intelligence

Following table distinguish the difference between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0

Web 1.0 is about : Reading

Web 2.0 is about : Reading /Writing

Web 1.0 is about : Publishing

Web 2.0 is about : Feedbacks, Reviews, Personalization

Web 1.0 is about : Linking Content using Hyperlinks

Web 2.0 is about : mashup

Web 1.0 is about : Companies

Web 2.0 is about : CommunityCommunity

Web 1.0 is about : Client-Server

Web 2.0 is about : Peer to Peer

Web 1.0 is about : HTML

Web 2.0 is about : XML

Web 1.0 is about : Home Pages

Web 2.0 is about : Blogs and Wikis

Web 1.0 is about : Portals

Web 2.0 is about : RSS

Web 1.0 is about : Taxonomy

Web 2.0 is about : Tags

Web 1.0 is about : Owning

Web 2.0 is about : Sharing

Web 1.0 is about : Web form

Web 2.0 is about : Web Application

Web 1.0 is about : Hardware Cost

Web 2.0 is about : Bandwidth Cost

Web 3. 0 (Semantic Web)

Web is no longer linking and tagging of information and resources. With the advent of semantic web concept, special information is attached to the resources or information so that machine can understand and read just like human.

Timer Berner Lee envisioned

“I have a dream for the Web [in which computers] become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web – the content, links, and transactions between people and computers. A ‘Semantic Web’, which should make this possible, has yet to emerge, but when it does, the day-to-day mechanisms of trade, bureaucracy and our daily lives will be handled by machines talking to machines. The ‘intelligent agents’ people have touted for ages will finally materialize.”

Semantic Web has derived from his vision of web as the universal medium for exchange of data, information and knowledge. Web 3.0 or Semantic Web is an Executable Phase of Web Development where dynamic applications provides interactive services and facilitates machine to machine interaction. Tim Berner Lee has further stated

“People keep asking what Web 3.0 is. I think maybe when you’ve got an overlay of scalable vector graphics – everything rippling and folding and looking misty – on Web 2.0 and access to a semantic Web integrated across a huge space of data, you’ll have access to an unbelievable data resource.” Semantic web is the an extension of World Wide Web in which web content is expressed in machine readable language, not just in nature language, so that user agents can read, process and understand the content using artificial intelligence imitating human behavior. In other words Semantic Web is an extension of the web where content expressed can be processed independently by intelligent software agents.

There can be several agents one can program within the context of vocabulary of the vertical domain.

For example

“Travel Agent”, who keep searching chipset air tickets based on your criteria and notify you when it gets the perfect one.

“Personal Shopper Agent”, who keeps looking for the specific product on the eBay and get it for you once it finds the one that match with all of your criterions.

Similarly we can have “Real Estate Agent”, “Personal Financial Advisor Agent” and many more.

All user is doing is just creating their personal agent which talks with the web services which are exposed publicly and there by taking care of lots of repetitive tasks.

Precisely Web 3.0 = Every human + Every device + Every Information

Characteristics of Semantic Web

1. Unlike database driven websites, In Semantic Web database is not centralized.

2. Semantic Web is the Open System where schema is not fixed as it may take any arbitrary source of data.

3. Semantic Web requires using Meta description languages such as Web Ontology Language and the Resource Description Framework (RDF). Annotation requires lot of time and effort.

Web n.0 – a Glimpse of the Future

Let me add one more element to the previous formula

Web 3.0 = Every human + Every device + Every Information = Everything in the context of current technology advancement.

Web 3.0 is still evolving and it is going to encompass everything. One can not envision anything beyond web 3.0 in the current technology advancement.

Breaking all current technological capabilities Raymond Kurzweil, the inventor of OCR (Optical Character Reader) envisioned Web 4.0 as the Web OS with intelligent user agents acting parallel to human brain. Following figure illustrate the evolution of Web along with technology advancement and the semantics of social connections. Source: Nova Spivack and Radar Networks

Conclusion

The evolution of web has gone through phases as mentioned in this article and that has introduced numerous technologies and concepts in various areas; software, communication, hardware, marketing, advertising, content sharing, publicity, finance and many more.

In a way the World Wide Web has changed the way people were used to look at things earlier. I believe this evolution is never ending and moving towards excellence.

References:

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7 Most Unconventional Yet Promising Career Options for Youths

Professional courses not only help in securing a good job, but also help in grooming one’s personality. Attributes such as verbal communication, time management, asset management and self-confidence add a professional flair to the personality. Professional courses mean excellent career prospects and job security that can help you grow in your professional life to the top positions. That’s why youths in this age are more inclined towards professional courses than regular programs. Let’s find out what are the most popular professional courses in the present time apart from B. Tech and MBBS.

Career in Chartered Accountancy

Chartered Accountancy is one of the best options for students who are exemplary and outstanding in, maths and commerce. Eligibility for CA course is a degree in commerce. To successfully complete the program you have to clear three levels of examinations. The first is a proficiency test, the second is based on a theoretical program which is the professional competence course. And, the third and final is the course exam, which is the test of theory and the final stage, qualifying which you become a full fledged auditor. It could take anywhere between four to five years to complete the course after a B. Com or M. Com. All companies, whether private or public need auditors who audit accounts and file taxes. Job prospects for CA are very high and there’s a huge shortage of CAs, both in the domestic and international market.

Career in Textile Designing

The Indian textile industry is the second largest employer in the country. Textile is also one of the top contributors in India’s export basket and that’s why textile exporters draw good incentives from the Government of India. Among various career options in the textile industry, textile designing is one of the most creative, glamorous, lucrative yet challenging career option. Qualified youth with a bent of mind in designing and craftsmanship can excel very swiftly in textile designing. Ministry of Textile in India established National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) in the 80s for the promotion and development of textile and its allied industries in India. Apart from NIFT there are many other private institutes which offer various short-term certificate courses, diploma programs and graduate as well as post-graduate courses in Textile Designing. For diploma or graduate courses, the minimum eligibility criteria is 10+2 pass or equivalent in any stream.

A textile designer should have a good sense and knowledge of colours, textures and motifs. He/she must be attentive, punctual and computer savvy, knowledge of CAD and other design software can be an added advantage for a fresher. Textile designing is not restricted to aforementioned areas rather it play a pivotal role in the fashion industry too. Textile designers can contribute immensely in the growth of export houses, buying houses, design studios, films & television studios and retail chains besides serving the conventional manufacturers in the textile, garments and furnishing industry. A fresher can easily get annual salary package ranging between Rs. 2.5 Lac to 4.0 Lac, while after a modest experience of 1.5 to 2 years one can expect 20 to 30 percent increment. In addition, the overseas market too eagerly awaits textile designers from India. A textile designer can make good money in countries like France, Japan, Italy and USA.

Career in Jewellery Designing

The unprecedented growth of jewellery industry opened many lucrative vistas for youth and those who really care about perfection, subtle beauty and a creative bent of mind can foray into jewellery designing for a stupendous career. For a great start in this ravishing sector, you need to develop innovative ideas, unique designs and powerful imaginations. The scope of jewellery designing is quite vast and it is not limited to the designing. After Graduation (BDes) one is eligible for a variety of associated fields like marketing, branding, operation management, visual merchandising, quality control, training & development, retail management, franchise development and other core services of jewellery industry.

Indian designers are in the upper hand in the international market because of their finer jewelry sense, intricate craftsmanship and unique dispositions that inherited to them generation after generation. The growth of jewellery sector is responsible for the imminent job opportunities in this highly glamorous industry.

Career in Law

In the era of globalization, law is one of the most sought-after career options for today’s youth. Opportunities for law graduates are enormous as they are in demands of the society and industries too.

Today, the Law is not restricted to the courts and corporate, it is widening with the development and changes in the society and business. 30 years back no one would have ever imagined that people in future get specialization in Cyber Law and Entertainment law. The growth of law is directly proportional to the advancement in human society. In the current scenario, law fields which are high in demand are Admiralty (Maritime) Law, Bankruptcy Law, Business (Corporate) Law, Civil Rights Law, Criminal Law, Entertainment Law and Health Law.

Career in Clinical Microbiology

Clinical microbiologists are medical professionals who study and research micro-organisms like bacteria and fungi in the laboratory with the aim of diagnosing, preventing and treating various infectious diseases. People equipped with knowledge and a professional degree in Clinical Microbiology is very much in demand these days both in the Indian and overseas market. Two of the most sought-after professional programs are Bachelor of Science in Clinical Microbiology (B. Sc.-CMB) and Master of Science in Clinical Microbiology (M.Sc.-CMB), 10+2 in any stream or equivalent is the admission eligibility for the bachelor’s level program and for masters one need to possess a degree in any one of the specialized fields such as BSCMLT /BSCBT / BSCCMB / BSCBI / B.Sc. (Biology) / B.Sc. ( Nursing) or equivalent.

Usually a clinical microbiologist performs two major tasks; first, managing and coordinating with medical technologists and consulting with doctors and physicians to anticipate their needs. Secondly, they monitor and analyze microbial culture/samples using specialist computer software and for this additional qualification in statistics, and computer science improves one’s career prospects. Personal attributes like meticulous planning skills, decisiveness, good analytical skills, IT skills, patience power and team spirit helps one to differentiate from the competitors.

A person with B.Sc. (CMB) can easily secure a pay package between Rs.25K to 35K per month while the holder of M.Sc.-CB can earn Rs. 35K to 45K per month in India. Besides, Microbiologists have tremendous job and research opportunities in the overseas market too, and countries like the US, Canada, Israel, Japan and Malaysia are the best places for these professionals to work and grow.

Career in Telecommunications Engineering

Telecommunications is the most revolutionary scientific achievement for the mankind that converted a huge planet (Earth) into a global village. Telecommunication fuelled the growth of the businesses and expedited various social and economic advancements. Today, millions of people are blessed with a lucrative job in this sector worldwide and it is one of the most stable industry in the present times. Telecommunications engineering is involved in all types of information exchange, be it telephone communications, TV and Radio broadcasting, radar signals in aviation and the Internet. A telecommunication engineer posses a blend of knowledge comprises of computer science, electrical engineering and networking.

In India, the starting salary of an individual varies from organization to organization and the name of the institute also play a vital role in one annual pay package. But, on an average a diploma holder earns a monthly salary in the range of Rs 10,000 to 20,000, while a B. Tech holder can easily secure a package in between Rs 12,000-25,000 per month.

Career in Pharmacy

There are unparalleled career opportunities for pharmacists in India as the sector is experiencing 15% annual growth rate and many market experts have predicted that soon it will supersede the IT sector. The demand of Indian medicines is rampant in America, South East Asia, Central Asia and Africa, the total export had already crossed Rs. 12,000 crore figure and many more Indian pharmaceutical companies are venturing into the export.

In modern era, pharmacists play multi-faceted roles. They contribute in clinical services, manufacturing, quality assurance, regulatory affairs and many. To play such a variety of roles, one should have good analytical skills, communication skills, interpersonal skills, coordination capabilities, humble attitude, apart from the good knowledge of various chemicals and compositions which can be acquired through a diploma program or B. Pharm and M. Pharm further hones one’s skills.

How to Protect Curtain Walls From Damage During Construction and Shipping

Many new commercial construction projects are designed with large, glass curtain walls that are attached to the outside structure of buildings. These glass walls allow filtered natural light to enter the building interior as well as create a beautiful outside appearance. Another benefit of these wall systems is to increase fire spread between floors and to keep out air and water. Typically, a curtain wall spans more than one story and is composed of metal framing with infill units of glass. Unfortunately, these glass walls are often damaged during construction activity at considerable cost.

Curtain walls can be damaged during shipment to the job site, during installation and after installation while the remaining construction work takes place. There are several methods that manufacturers’ can use to protect the aluminum windows and mullions from damage for shipment. Protecta-foam strips can quickly be adhered to the metal surface and act as a protective barrier between stacked wall units. Reinforced cardboard edge protectors from 2.5 to 4.0 inches can be taped to all edges of the units for shipment. Lastly, rolled cardboard can be used in some cases if the weight of the units is not enough to crush the cardboard. Wall glass can be protected from scratches during shipment by using adhesive window film.

Once curtain walls have been delivered to the job site, unpacked and properly installed, they are at the highest risk of damage. Various construction trades will work both outside and inside the construction project for months or years. Not only can the aluminum be dented or scratched, the glass is at high risk for scratching and breakage as well. Some glass may be very expensive if it provides seismic- or hurricane-impact resistance or ballistic proof glass specified on courthouse projects. Protecting both the glass and metal once the curtain wall has been installed is a smart move by any contractor.

Most damage to curtain walls occurs at the lowest 5 feet of the walls on each floor of the building. This is where the workers and equipment will be in the closest contact to the walls. The best protection provides a “wall” in front of the glass wall itself. This protection wall can be constructed of wood or plastic. While wood is the strongest wall protection available, it is also expensive and time-consuming to erect. Corrugated plastic sheets in 4 ft by 8 ft sections can be taped together in front of the curtain wall providing a light weight and easily constructed wall. Unlike wood, plastic can be cleaned to remove dust and dirt as needed. Since there is no electricity for lights during early construction, protection walls constructed of white or clear plastic allow natural light to enter the building.

As the demand for curtain walls continues to increase, the need to protect these walls during construction will prove a challenge. Forward-thinking architects and building owners are taking the next step with wall systems by moving from energy conservation to energy generation. These newer walls with photovoltaic modules will be even more expensive and harder to repair or replace. With proper foresight and the use of temporary curtain wall protection, the smart contractor will not have to worry about damage to his or her curtain wall systems getting damaged.

Hispanics Become Second Largest USA Consumer Market

Hispanics now make up the second largest consumer group in the USA after non-Hispanic whites, who are the largest group with 200 million. One in every six U.S. residents is now Hispanic. The 2010 Census is expected to count 50 million Hispanics, whose population in America has increased 42% over the past 10 years, compared to 5% growth for the rest of the population.

Obviously this will have a major impact on many companies’ decisions involving Hispanic website localization and translation into Spanish for online marketing materials. But the issues are more complex, as U.S. Hispanics represent a swiftly changing demographic, where the English language is gaining strength, yet Latino branding and identity holds sway.

A return to a market with “traditional values?” A recent article in Advertising Age speculates that one of the most remarkable aspects of U.S. Hispanic consumers is how closely they resemble the idealized “nuclear family” image of the 1950s. Hispanics are young, with a median age equivalent to that of the general populace in the USA in the 1950s, and are more inclined than the rest of the population to live in large, traditional, married-with-children families with lots of participation from grandparents.

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Hispanics are more likely to eat family meals at home and spend less on alcohol. Like the nuclear families of the 1950s, Hispanics are moving to the suburbs, tend to be community-oriented and have high aspirations for their children. This presents potential for a growing and strong market for the same consumer goods and services that the nation consumed as a whole when baby boomers were young. Ironically the highly strategic Hispanic market is gaining significant strength just as baby boomers are moving into retirement.

Hispanics make up a changing, youthful market segment Hispanics will likely account for a boost in consumer spending as baby boomers begin moving into retirement in large numbers around 2015. Over one third of Hispanics are children under 18 years of age, and 91% of Hispanic children were born in the USA. In contrast, only 47% of Hispanic adults were born in the U.S., which has great implications on how Hispanics overall will acculturate. Youthful, U.S.-born Hispanics typically attend public schools, rapidly gaining English language skills and adapting to U.S. culture more quickly than their parents did.

Over the next 10 years, as millions of bilingual Hispanic teens come of age and enter the workforce as young adults, their consumer behavior is likely to move closer to that of other non-Hispanic young adults. The large size and heavy geographic concentration of this segment of the Hispanic population makes it likely that Hispanic culture will remain strong, even among U.S.-born children.

Language and cultural branding issues One of the biggest challenges for online marketing professionals is how to reach young, acculturated bilingual Hispanics, who choose products differently than their parents (who didn’t grow up in the USA) and don’t spend as much time with Spanish-language media.

Yet, young bilingual Hispanics still feel a deep sense of Latino identity. The message? Even English-only campaigns aimed at this group will need carefully selected Latino branding, icons and psychographics for years to come.

The English language is making gains as the language that U.S. Hispanics are most comfortable speaking. Recent research reveals that 27% of Hispanics are most comfortable speaking the English language with another 17% comfortable in both the English language and the Spanish language. This means that 44% of the demographic (nearly half) is currently at ease in English. As the large, youthful portion of this consumer segment, born in the USA, reaches maturity, preference for and comfort with English will only increase.

Who are Hispanics and what kind of Spanish language do they speak? GPI has previously written about this topic in our blog “Why You Need a Localized Website for the U.S. Hispanic Market.” Although the majority of U.S. Hispanics identify with Mexico for ethnic origin, a large portion identify with ten other countries that extend as far south as Colombia and Peru. Our previous blog covers specifics about primary cultural values and factors in consumer decision-making that are predominant in the U.S. Hispanic market. The same blog also covers how to translate to a “universal” form of Spanish that works for Hispanics from different countries.

Why will Hispanic identity and Latino values persist? Globalization has created a connection to countries of origin for immigrants in the USA that was impossible in any previous period of history. Immigrants from all parts of the world are now able to maintain unbroken communication with family and friends in their place of origin via Skype, inexpensive Internet connections, even affordable mobile phone calling plans. Thanks to recent economic downturns, international airfares have never been more affordable.

Satellite and cable TV frequently provide channels devoted to home-country languages and culture. These affordable means of communication and cultural contact are having a transformative impact on U.S. culture; note the global cues in fast-evolving domestic trends in fashion, food and music. For example, look at the impact India’s Bollywood-style musicals have had on mainstream music videos.

Hispanic demographic is geographically concentrated Latino values and Hispanic consumer preferences are also reinforced by the fact that this domestic consumer market is highly concentrated in a few regions of the country. Over 50% of U.S. Hispanics reside in California and Texas. In fact, state-level research in California indicated 3 years ago that Hispanics made up one third of that state’s population and are expected to become a majority in California by 2042. The other six states with more than one million Hispanics are Florida, New York, Illinois, Arizona, New Jersey and Colorado.

This is actually a benefit to those companies targeting the domestic Hispanic market with traditional media, as print advertising and broadcast time can be purchased on a selective, regional basis with maximum impact. Hispanics are a more lucrative target market than many other, more geographically scattered ethnic groups.

Youthful Hispanic population has large households On average, the Hispanic population is 10 years younger than the general population of non-Hispanics. The U.S. Hispanic median age is just under 28 years old; 75% of adult Hispanics are age 18-49 compared to 56% of non-Hispanics.

Hispanics boast the largest household size of any population segment in the USA. The average Hispanic family has 4.0 members compared with 2.9 members in the average white, non-Hispanic family. Only 4% of adult Hispanics live alone compared to 15% of white non-Hispanics.

Positive impact of Hispanic consumers on the U.S. economy As mentioned before, in the middle of this decade millions of baby boomers will begin moving into retirement. That means that this traditionally lucrative market segment will be substantially reducing its consumer spending. At the same time, a large portion of the youthful Hispanic population will be coming of age, entering the workforce and the marketplace. Hispanic consumers will play a key role in replacing retiring baby boomers in the consumer marketplace and will contribute to a potential upswing in retail spending and economic growth.

Take-away message Over the next 15 years, the importance of domestic websites in Spanish may decrease somewhat. However, globalization and the high concentration of Hispanics in certain regions of the country will reinforce Latino identity for generations to come, requiring skillful branding and Hispanic website imagery that appeals to these highly strategic consumers.

Asp Net Development: A Brief History and Advantages

Asp.net is one of the leading web application development framework allowing programmers to build dynamic web sites, web applications and web services. It was developed and launched by Microsoft. Currently there are millions of developers, and significant amount of software development companies opting for asp.net development for their development needs. It was released in January 2002 with version 1.0 with the current version 4.0. It is based on the.net framework and is the descendant to Microsoft’s Active Server Pages technology. Furthermore, it is built on the Common Language Runtime (CLR) giving freedom to programmers to write its code using any supported.net language.

Some of the major advantages of Asp.net development could be classified as under:

• As it is a part of Microsoft technologies, so a programmer could be rest assured with the quality of services. In addition, a programmer could also get support from Microsoft.

• Serves as one of the prominent solutions in designing robust and dynamic web sites, web applications and web services.

• Frequently updated by Microsoft to meet the cutting-edge technological requirements and a developer could download these updates as and when required.

• Can be cross-linked with various other technological frameworks such as C, C++, C#, JAVA/AJAX, Flash/Flex, and many others.

• Cross-browser compatibility as the solutions provided could work on multiple browsers such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, Opera, Google Chrome etc.

• Gives freedom to the programmers to write the asp.net code in any.net framework because of its Common Language Runtime advantage.

• SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) extension framework, which allows its components to process SOAP messages.

• It is used by millions of users around the globe, proving it as a prominent widget for the development process.

• Support of themes, templates, add-ons and plugins, along with several other advantages.

Apart from these, there are several other advantages, which can be availed by its programmers, in their development process.

Asp.net development could provide thriving solutions in the following categories:

-> Business and corporate website

-> Social/ business/ community networking website

-> Solutions for web-based application

-> Custom CMS (Content Management System)

-> Custom CRM (Customer Relationship Management)

-> And several other solutions, customized to meet individual/ business specific requirements.