The Evolution of Python Language Over the Years

According to several websites, Python is one of the most popular coding languages of 2015. Along with being a high-level and general-purpose programming language, Python is also object-oriented and open source. At the same time, a good number of developers across the world have been making use of Python to create GUI applications, websites and mobile apps. The differentiating factor that Python brings to the table is that it enables programmers to flesh out concepts by writing less and readable code. The developers can further take advantage of several Python frameworks to mitigate the time and effort required for building large and complex software applications.

The programming language is currently being used by a number of high-traffic websites including Google, Yahoo Groups, Yahoo Maps, Linux Weekly News, Shopzilla and Web Therapy. Likewise, Python also finds great use for creating gaming, financial, scientific and educational applications. However, developers still use different versions of the programming language. According to the usage statistics and market share data of Python posted on W3techs, currently Python 2 is being used by 99.4% of websites, whereas Python 3 is being used only by 0.6% of websites. That is why, it becomes essential for each programmer to understand different versions of Python, and its evolution over many years.

How Python Has Been Evolving over the Years?

Conceived as a Hobby Programming Project

Despite being one of the most popular coding languages of 2015, Python was originally conceived by Guido van Rossum as a hobby project in December 1989. As Van Rossum’s office remained closed during Christmas, he was looking for a hobby project that will keep him occupied during the holidays. He planned to create an interpreter for a new scripting language, and named the project as Python. Thus, Python was originally designed as a successor to ABC programming language. After writing the interpreter, Van Rossum made the code public in February 1991. However, at present the open source programming language is being managed by the Python Software Foundation.

Version 1 of Python

Python 1.0 was released in January 1994. The major release included a number of new features and functional programming tools including lambda, filter, map and reduce. The version 1.4 was released with several new features like keyword arguments, built-in support for complex numbers, and a basic form of data hiding. The major release was followed by two minor releases, version 1.5 in December 1997 and version 1.6 in September 2000. The version 1 of Python lacked the features offered by popular programming languages of the time. But the initial versions created a solid foundation for development of a powerful and futuristic programming language.

Version 2 of Python

In October 2000, Python 2.0 was released with the new list comprehension feature and a garbage collection system. The syntax for the list comprehension feature was inspired by other functional programming languages like Haskell. But Python 2.0, unlike Haskell, gave preference to alphabetic keywords over punctuation characters. Also, the garbage collection system effectuated collection of reference cycles. The major release was followed by several minor releases. These releases added a number of functionality to the programming language like support for nested scopes, and unification of Python’s classes and types into a single hierarchy. The Python Software Foundation has already announced that there would be no Python 2.8. However, the Foundation will provide support to version 2.7 of the programming language till 2020.

Version 3 of Python

Python 3.0 was released in December 2008. It came with a several new features and enhancements, along with a number of deprecated features. The deprecated features and backward incompatibility make version 3 of Python completely different from earlier versions. So many developers still use Python 2.6 or 2.7 to avail the features deprecated from last major release. However, the new features of Python 3 made it more modern and popular. Many developers even switched to version 3.0 of the programming language to avail these awesome features.

Python 3.0 replaced print statement with the built-in print() function, while allowing programmers to use custom separator between lines. Likewise, it simplified the rules of ordering comparison. If the operands are not organized in a natural and meaningful order, the ordering comparison operators can now raise a TypeError exception. The version 3 of the programming language further uses text and data instead of Unicode and 8-bit strings. While treating all code as Unicode by default it represents binary data as encoded Unicode.

As Python 3 is backward incompatible, the programmers cannot access features like string exceptions, old-style classes, and implicit relative imports. Also, the developers must be familiar with changes made to syntax and APIs. They can use a tool called “2to3” to migrate their application from Python 2 to 3 smoothly. The tool highlights incompatibility and areas of concern through comments and warnings. The comments help programmers to make changes to the code, and upgrade their existing applications to the latest version of programming language.

Latest Versions of Python

At present, programmers can choose either version 3.4.3 or 2.7.10 of Python. Python 2.7 enables developers to avail improved numeric handling and enhancements for standard library. The version further makes it easier for developers to migrate to Python 3. On the other hand, Python 3.4 comes with several new features and library modules, security improvements and CPython implementation improvements. However, a number of features are deprecated in both Python API and programming language. The developers can still use Python 3.4 to avail support in the longer run.

Version 4 of Python

Python 4.0 is expected to be available in 2023 after the release of Python 3.9. It will come with features that will help programmers to switch from version 3 to 4 seamlessly. Also, as they gain experience, the expert Python developers can take advantage of a number of backward compatible features to modernize their existing applications without putting any extra time and effort. However, the developers still have to wait many years to get a clear picture of Python 4.0. However, they must monitor the latest releases to easily migrate to the version 4.0 of the popular coding language.

The version 2 and version 3 of Python are completely different from each other. So each programmer must understand the features of these distinct versions, and compare their functionality based on specific needs of the project. Also, he needs to check the version of Python that each framework supports. However, each developer must take advantage of the latest version of Python to avail new features and long-term support.

Harri has an avid interest in Python and loves to blog interesting stuff about the technology. He recently wrote an interesting Python blog on http://www.allaboutweb.biz/category/python/.

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Horizon Treadmill Review: The Elite 507

Introduction:

Like many people, you might be struggling to maintain a healthy weight. Our modern diet tends to be too high in fat and our modern lifestyle leaves little time for an effective and comprehensive exercise programme. But did you know that the more lean muscle you have, the more calories your body can burn? So even a modest gain in lean muscle mass can translate to a more easily managed body weight. We’ve found that one of the best ways to get started on an exercise programme is to walk on a treadmill. You can begin at a slow, relaxed pace and gradually build to a more vigorous jog or run as you get stronger. It’s key, though, to have a quality treadmill that you won’t outgrow. Here’s some information about one we’ve found to be both durable and versatile: the Horizon treadmill, Elite 507 model.

Overall Rating:

4.5 out of 5.0 stars

Key Features:

If you’re looking for a treadmill that will deliver a gym-quality workout at home, the Elite 507 is worth a serious look. We’ve found that this treadmill has a number of innovative and ergonomic features to help you reach your fitness goals safely in the shortest amount of time. Designed for beginners and experts alike, this treadmill has the most powerful motor in its class and a sturdy, heavy duty frame. We also like the 4.4mm orthopaedic running belt and an extended running area that will work for even the longest stride. With a good variety of programmes, such as heart rate and user-created, this machine will keep you interested and engaged in your fitness regimen. We do appreciate the ability to design a customised workout.

Price:

About £1299.00

Product Description:

This is a full-featured treadmill with a number of exclusive features. For example, the controls are integrated into the side handle bars, a feature that allows users to change speed and elevation safely on demand. For opening the treadmill, there’s a controlled drop system of hydraulics that assists in lowering the deck into the open position. The console has an easy to read multi-coloured LED display. The buttons that adjust the speed and elevation are rubberised for durability. The treadmill also supports the popular Polar brand of heart rate monitors.

Product Specifications:

Display feedback: Calories, distance, elevation, heart rate, laps, speed and time

Heart rate measurement: Hand grips and receiver

Maximum speed: 12mph

Motor power (HP) 2.5 (4.0 peak)

Incline: 12%

Cushioning: Variable elastomer

Folds for storage: Yes

Running area: 150 x 50cms (60″ x 20″)

Running belt: 4.4 mm orthopaedic

Open dimensions: L197 x W86 x H132cms

Folded dimensions: L83 x W86 x H188cms

Product weight: 120kgs

Maximum user weight 375lbs (170kgs)

Power method: Mains

Warranty: Lifetime on motor and frame. 3 years parts and labour

Conclusion:

You’re not likely to outgrow the Horizon treadmill model Elite. The high-tech fully, integrated digital drive seamlessly integrates with the machine’s other components in a superior design that ensures superb performance, quality and longevity.

Health, Safety & Environmental (HSE) Management In Engineering Practice

COMPONENTS OF HSE MANAGEMENT

Health, Safety and Environmental management should be part of the engineering profession in a country for the purpose of

o duty of care

o economic reasons and

o legal reasons.

HSE management should therefore consider five broad phases:

* Specifications

* Design and implementation

* Installation and commissioning

* Operation and maintenance

* Changes after commissioning.

* Compliance with the standards requires four essential elements:

* Identification of safety functions required for the safe shutdown

* Assignment of a safety integrity level (SIL) for each safety function

* Use of the safety lifecycle for the engineering design and

* Verification of the SIL achieved for each safety function.

3.0 ENGINEERING CODE OF PRACTICE

The engineering code of practice takes into consideration the following:

* Public safety: Giving priority to the safety and well-being of the community and having regard to this principle in assessing obligations to the clients, employers and colleagues.

* Risk Management: Taking reasonable steps to minimize the risk of loss of lives, injuries or suffering.

* Workplace and construction site: Minimizing potential dangers involved in the construction and manufacture of engineering products and processes.

* Public/Community well-being

* Communication

* Conflicts of interest

* Confidentiality

The privilege of practicing engineering is entrusted to those qualified and who have the responsibility for applying engineering skills, scientific knowledge and ingenuity for the advancement of human welfare and quality of life. Fundamental principles of conduct of engineers include truth, honesty and trustworthiness in their service to the society, honourable and ethical practice showing fairness, courtesy and good faith towards clients, colleagues and others. Engineers take societal, cultural, economic, environmental and safety aspects into consideration and strive for the efficient use of the world’s resources to meet long term human needs.

4.0 SAFE ENGINEERING DESIGNS

Safety is a concern in virtually all engineering design processes. Engineers should understand safety in the context of engineering design and what it means to say that a design is safe against human injuries.

Current design methods prioritize economic considerations over environmental ones. In some cases, economic considerations also serve environmental goals. For instance, the minimization of materials used in a structure means resources are saved. If they are saved at the expense of the length of the operating life of a product, then, economic considerations conflict with environmental interests which demand that products be made as durable as possible because of the need to minimize resource usage and waste generation in the long term.

Safety is the antonym of risk. So, a design is safe to the extent that it reduces risk. Safe design aims at minimizing risk in the standard sense of this term.

A safe design is the combination of all those procedures and principles that are used by engineers to make designed objects safe against accidents leading to human death or injuries, long term health effects, damage to the environment or malfunctioning in general.

Several design strategies used to achieve safety in operations of potentially dangerous technology are:

* inherently safe design

* safety factors

* negative feedback (self-shutdown) and

* multiple independent safety barriers.

Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is the most common method of assessing safety but safe designs are used to reduce risks in the standard (probabilistic) sense but is inadequate. Safe design strategies are used to reduce estimated probabilities of injuries or reducing uncertainties not only risks. They are used to cope with hazards and eventualities that cannot be assigned meaningful probabilities.

5.0 DESIGN PRINCIPLES IN ENGINEERING

There are four (4) main design principles in Engineering practice.

(a) Inherently safe design:

This minimizes the inherent dangers in the process as far as possible. Potential hazards are excluded rather than enclosed or coped with. For instance, dangerous substances are replaced by less dangerous ones and fire proof materials are used rather than inflammable ones.

(b) Safety Factors

Construction should be strong enough to resist load and disturbances exceeding those that are intended. A common way to obtain such safety reserves is to employ explicitly chosen numerical safety factors are employed. If a safety factor of two (2) is employed when building a bridge, then the bridge is calculated to resist twice the maximal load to which it will be exposed to in practice.

(c) Negative feedback mechanisms

This is introduced to achieve a self-shutdown in case of device failure or when the operator looses control. Examples are safety valves that let out steam when the pressure is too high in a steam boiler and the dead man’s hole that stops the train when the driver falls asleep. One of the most important safety measures in the nuclear industry is to ensure that reactors close down automatically in critical situations.

(d) Multiple Independent Safety Barriers

Safety barriers are arranged in chains, so that each barrier is independent of its predecessors (if the first fails, the second is still intact). The first barriers prevent accidents; the second barriers limit the consequences of an accident and rescue services as the last resort.

Safety factors and multiple safety barriers deal with uncertainties as well as risks. But currently, Probabilistic Risk Analysis (PRA) is used but does not deal with uncertainties. Probabilistic calculations can support but will not supplant the Engineers’ ethically responsible judgment (environment, health and safety culture).

Safety engineering principles also include education of operators, maintenance of equipment and installations and incidence reporting are examples of safety practices of general importance.

6.0 HEALTH, SAFETY & ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE

The Engineering profession is expected to be the harbinger of Health, Safety & Environmental management by virtue of the complexity of the output of the profession and their impacts on the lives of the general populace. How have we carried this along in our professional practices?

Seven (7) bad engineering practices have been identified:

* Believing that if something is not specifically stated, either “shall do” or “shall not do” in the standards, an engineer does not need to worry about it.

* Thinking that meeting the minimum requirements means the process is safe and complies with the standard.

* Ignoring the importance of good engineering practice.

* Designing systems that meet economic requirements but not safety protection requirements.

* Neglecting human factors (errors in calculations etc)

* Focusing on capital cost and not on lifecycle costs.

* Focusing only on the safety integrity level (SIL) and not on prevention.

Safety is an essential ethical requirement in engineering practice. Strategies for safe design are used not only to reduce estimated probabilities of injuries but also to cope with hazards and eventualities that cannot be assigned meaningful probabilities. Designers have an ethical responsibility to make constructions that are safe for future use. Safety is concerned with avoiding certain classes of events that are morally right to avoid.

In engineering design, safety consideration always includes safety against unintended human death or injuries that occur as a result of the unintended use of the designed object for:

* Prevention of damage to the environment

* Prevention of long term health effects

For example, if a bridge collapses, the engineers who designed it are held responsible.

Building designers and builders must obey construction safety in the use of Scaffolds, tool nets, tool boxes, mechanical lifts and manual lifts under safe procedures, use of personal protective equipments (PPEs) on sites (boots/helmets), clear passages and road-ways, construction tapes to cordon off work areas etc. Most engineers have neglected this aspect, thus, playing with the lives of the generality of the populace.

What engineers do have lasting influences on safety and define our level of Environment, Health and Safety culture.

7.0 ETHICAL OBLIGATIONS IN ENGINEERING PRACTICE

Ethical obligations are necessary in order for engineers to carry out their profession. Without the obligation of confidentiality, clients could not trust engineers with commercially sensitive information. Without these information, engineers could not do their jobs. The moral obligations of our profession can be understood as duties which are necessary.

There are five (5) fundamental values necessary for the ethical obligations:

* Protection of lives and safeguarding of people.

* Professionalism, integrity and competence

* Commitment to community/public well-being

* Sustainable management and care for the environment

* Sustaining engineering knowledge

8.0 ENGINEERING PRACTICE REQUIREMENTS

* Engineers shall hold paramount the Health, Safety and Environment/welfare of the public in the practice of their profession.

* Engineers shall practice only in their areas or field of competence, in a careful and diligent manner and in conformance with standards, laws, codes, rules and regulations applicable to engineering practice.

* Engineers shall examine the societal and environmental impact of their actions and projects, including the use and conservation of resources and energy in order to make informed recommendations and decisions..

* Engineers should declare their interests clearly.

* Engineers shall sign and take responsibility for all engineering works which they prepared or directly supervised. Engineers may sign works prepared by others only with their consent and after sufficient review and verification.

* Engineers shall act as faithful agents for their employers or clients and maintain confidentiality, avoid conflicts of interest whenever possible and disclose unavoidable conflicts.

* Engineers professional concerns must be made known to the client and the consequences of engineering decisions or judgments.

* Engineers should reject any public works, engineering decisions or practice that endanger the HSE of the public.

* Engineers shall commit to life-long learning, strive to advance the body of engineering knowledge and should encourage other engineers to do likewise.

* Engineers shall promote responsibility, commitment and ethics both in the education and practice phases of engineering. They should enhance society’s awareness of engineer’s responsibilities to the public and encourage the communication of these principles of ethical conduct among engineers.

9.0 HSE SUSTAINABILITY MANAGEMENT

This is about the long term survival of humanity. It recognizes that decisions made today must enable both those in the present as well as people of the foreseeable future to make effective choices about their quality of life.

Failure to identify risks to safety and the inability to address or control these risks can result in massive costs, both human and economic. The multidisciplinary nature of safety engineering means that a very broad array of professionals are actively involved in accident prevention or safety engineering.

A critical fault endangers or few people. A catastrophic fault endangers, harms or kills a significant number of people. Engineer’s errors or inability to incorporate the HSE management in his practice spells catastrophic.

10.0 THE WAY FORWARD

Everyone must strengthen his or her understanding of HSE awareness by making safety a priority. Also, cost effective solutions in order to gain the biggest return on investment should be developed.

Engineers take early design of a system, analyze it to find what faults can occur and then propose safety requirements in design specifications upfront and changes to existing systems to make the system safer.

If significant safety problems are discovered late in the design process, correcting them can e very expensive. This type of error has the potential to waste large sums of money.

* At all times, take all reasonable care to ensure that your work and the consequences of your work cause no unacceptable risk to safety.

* Take all reasonable steps to make your management/client and those to whom they have a duty of care aware of the risks you identify.

* Make anyone overruling or neglecting your professional advice formally aware of the consequent risks.

* It is critical for engineers to maintain a deep and broad understanding of the many technical and professional practice issues that they will inevitably encounter in their role as employees of public owners. This is achieved through appropriate education, training, experience, license, professional engineering practice and continuing professional development.

11.0 CONCLUSION

The engineering practice like the construction industry is the agent of social and economic development, the barometer of economic activities and a very large employer of labour in Nigeria. It accounts for over 60% of the total capital investment. It is the largest employer of labour (think of all the electrical, mechanical, civil, chemical and computer jobs in industries).

Health, Safety and environment, which is concerned with life and property must be taken serious in this profession. Safety procedures are necessary to prevent accidents, diseases and harmful effects on the health of the public at large arising from the activities in the industry on site and its environs or off site.

Good HSE management is visible in a country through the quality of the professional ethics of the professionals, engineers inclusive and the level of her health values and the state of her environment, that is, her level of cleanliness (personal hygiene and public sanitation).

It can only be developed through personal commitment, willingness and self-sacrifice because of the long and short run benefits therein. HSE management habit starts with safety consciousness. Safety consciousness dwells with each and every one of us and should be taken along to our professional practices.

People should recognize that their health and well-being are related to the quality of their environment and should apply thoughtful principles to attempt to improve the quality of their environment.

As Engineers, we should lead others in being safety conscious at all times and refraining from doing anything that may result to accident. We should apply safety measures to all our daily activities and take our safety and that of others around us as our responsibilities especially in our practices.

Finally, as Engineers we should pursue sustainable Health, Safety & environmental management and make it part and parcel of our engineering practice today for the continued relevance of our profession tomorrow. It is only when this is done that our professional ethics will be meaningful knowing fully well that the products of our professional practices have great impact on the lives of the entire citizens of this country.

Health, Safety & Environmental management habit is therefore not only necessary and but remains a vital ingredient of our professional ethics in engineering practice in Nigeria and elsewhere and this must be sustained always by all.

The Evolution of Word Wide Web – WWW

Introduction

World Wide Web (WWW) is the system of interlinked hypertext documents containing text, images, audio, videos, animation and more. User can view and navigate through these documents using hyperlinks or navigation elements which have references to another document or to the section of the same document. In a broader sense “The World Wide Web is the universe of network-accessible information, an embodiment of human knowledge.”

History of World Wide Web

WWW was first proposed in 1990 by Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Cailliau while working at the CERN, the European Council for Nuclear Research. Both of them came out with their individual proposal for Hypertext systems and later on they united and offered joint proposal. The term “Word Wide Web” was first introduced in that joint proposal. The history of every invention has lot of pre-history. Similarly the World Wide Web has also lot of pre-historical gradual development of hypertext system and internet protocols which made the WWW possible. The gradual development started in the early 1945, with the development of Memex, a device based on microfilms for storing huge amount of documents and facilitating organizing those documents. Later in 1968 “Hypertext” was introduced, which made linking and organization of documents fairly easy. In 1972 DARPA (Defense Advance Research Project Agency), started project that connect all research centers to facilitate data exchange which later adopted for military information exchange. In 1979 SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language) was invented to enable sharing of documents for large government project by separating content from the presentation and thereby enabling same document to be rendered in different ways. In 1989 Tim Berners-lee came out with Networked Hypertext system form CERN Laboratory. In 1990, joint proposal for hyper text system was presented and the term “World Wide Web” first introduced. In 1992 first portable browser was released by CERN, and that had picked up industry interest in internet development. Today web is so much popularized and has grown to be so invaded in to our lives; it becomes almost impossible to imagine the World without web.

Web Evolution – What and How?

Each technology has certain distinguished characteristics and features. Similarly web has certain features such as data, services, mess-up, APIs, social platform and more. These features are continuously and progressively evolving in distinct stages with qualitative improvements over the existing. Web evolution is categorized and hyped with some fancy marketing terms like “Web 1.0”, “Web 2.0”, “Social Web”, “Web 3.0”, “Pragmatic Semantic Web”, “Pragmatic Web” and many more.

Yihong Ding, PHD candidate at Brigham Young University, in his article on “Evolution of Web” explained the development of Web by analogically comparing it with the human growth. Yihong Ding stated “The relationship between web pages and their webmasters is similar to the relationship between children and their parents. As well as parents raise their children, webmasters maintain and update their web pages. Human children have their normal stages of development, such as the newborn stage, pre-school stage, elementary-school stage, teenage stage, and so on. Analogically, web has its generations, such as Web 1.0, Web 2.0, and so on.”

Along with technological advancement web design also changed over the period of time. Initial design was simple hypertext read only system which allowed users to read the information. User was just a viewer of what is presented on the web. Gradually images and tables added with evolution of HTML and web browsers, which allowed making better design. Development of photo-editing tools, web authoring tools and content management tools enabled designer to begin creating visually appealing website design layouts. In the next phase of development, web design changed with the change in usability and the focus is diverted on the users rather than the content of the website. User interaction and social touch is applied to the web design. Now user is not just a viewer. User can drive the web with feedback, information sharing, rating and personalization. Gradually we got the mature blend of function, form, content and interaction, called Read/Write Web. Continuing this evolution, meaning is added to the information presented on the web so that online virtual representatives of human can able to read and interprets the presented information. This kind of web where user agent imitating human behavior, can read and understand the information using artificial intelligence is called semantic web.

Web 1. 0 (Read Only Web)

World Wide Web is evolved in stages. First stage was the basic “Read Only” hypertext system also termed as Web 1.0 since the hype of Web 2.0. In fact in the original proposed web model, Tim Berners-Lee envisioned web as the Read/Write Model with HTTP PUT and HTTP DELETE method. These methods were almost never used just because of security reasons.

Some of the Characteristics of Web 1.0

1. In Web 1.0 web master is constantly engaged with responsibility of managing the content and keeps user updating. Majority of hyperlinks to the contents are manually assigned by the web master.

2. Web 1.0 does not support mass-publishing. The content on the website is published by the web master and thereby does not leverage the collective intelligence of users.

3. Web 1.0 uses basic hyper text mark up language for publishing content on the internet.

4. Web 1.0 pages do not support machine readable content. Only human who are web readers can understand the content.

5. Web 1.0 provides contact information (email, phone number, fax or address) for communication. Users have to use the off-line world for further communication with this contact information.

6. In Web 1.0, web pages are designed to react instinctively based on the programmed condition. Specific result or response is generated when the programmed condition is satisfied. Web 1.0 model does not understand remote request and can not prepare response for potential request in advance. To clearly understand above characteristics of web 1.0, Yihong Ding in his article on “Evolution of World Wide Web” has analogically correlated World of Web 1.0 with the world of a Newborn baby.

Newborn Baby : I have parents

Web-1.0 Page : Webmasters

Newborn Baby : Watch me, but I won’t explain

Web-1.0 Page : Humans understand, machines don’t

Newborn Baby : Talk to my parents if you want to discuss about me

Web-1.0 Page : Contact information (email, phone number, fax, address, …)

Newborn Baby : My parents decide who my friends are. Actually, I don’t care

Web-1.0 Page : Manually specified web links

Newborn Baby : Hug me, I smile; hit me, I cry (conditional reflex)

Web-1.0 Page : Reactive functions on web pages

Source: Analogy from the Article by Yihong Ding from http://www.deg.byu.edu/ding/WebEvolution/evolution-review.html#w1:1 “The web 1.0 pages are only babies.

Web 2. 0 (Read Write Web)

“Web 2.0 is the understanding that the network is the platform and on the network is platform roles for the business is different. And the cardinal role is user adds value. And figuring out how to built database and things to get better so that more people use that and it’s the secret of web 2.0.

Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the internet as platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform.”[4]

In Web 2.0 the idea of Consumer (Users) and Producer (Web Master) is dissolving. Web 2.o is more about communications and user interactions. Web 2.0 is all about participation. “Content is the King” often cited quote during early web 1.0 days, is now turned in to “User is the King” in Web 2.0. In web 2.0 users communicates through blogging, wikis and social networking websites. Everything on the web is tagged, to facilitate easy and quick navigation. Web 2.0 is also about combining it all in one single page by means of tagging and AJAX with better usability via lots of white space, and a cleaner layout. The API ability makes it possible for programmers to mash up data feeds and databases to cross reference information from multiple sources in one page. In contrast with web 1.0, web 2.0 has collective intelligence of millions of users.

Web 2.0 is all about improved version of World Wide Web with changing role and evolving business model where users learned to communicate with the other users instead of just communicating with the publisher of the content.

Some of the Characteristics of Web 2.0

1. Web 2.0 is the second version of Web providing RIA (Rich Internet Application) by bringing in the desktop experience such as “Drag and Drop” on the webpage in browser.

2. SOA (Service Oriented Architecture) is the key piece in Web 2.0. Buzzwords around SOA are Feeds, RSS, web services and mash up, which defines how Web 2.0 application exposes functionality so that other applications can leverage and integrate those functionalities providing much richer set of applications.

3. Web 2.0 is the Social web. Web 2.0 Application tends to interact much more with the end user. End users are not only the users of the application but also the participants whether by tagging the content, whether he is contributing to the wiki or doing podcast for blogging. Due to the Social nature of application end user is the interval part of the data for the application, proving feedbacks and allowing application to leverage that user going to use it.

4. In Web 2.0 philosophy and strategy is that “The Web is open”. Content is available to be moved and changed by any user. Web site content is not controlled by the people who made the web site but by the user who are using the web site.

5. In Web 2.0 Data is the driving force. Users are spending much more time online and started generating content in their passive time. Web 2.0 requires some of the key technologies to be used in the development of web pages. One of the important technologies is the AJAX which supports development of rich user experience.

6. Web 2.0 websites typically include some of the following key technologies.

– RSS (Really Simple Syndication), which allows users to syndicate, aggregate and to set up the notification of the data using feeds.

– Mashups, which makes it possible to merge the content from different sources, allowing new form of reusing of the information via public interface or APIs.

– Wikis and Forums to support user generated content.

– Tagging, which allows users to specify and attach human readable keyword to web resource.

– AJAX – Asynchronous Java Script and XML, which is the web development technique, allowing exchange of interactive data behind the scene without reloading the web page.

To clearly understand above characteristics of web 2.0, Yihong Ding in his article on “Evolution of World Wide Web” has analogically correlated World of Web 2.0 with the world of a Pre-School Kid.

Pre-School Kid : I have parents

Web-2.0 Page : Webmasters (blog owners)

Pre-School Kid : Parents teach me knowledge (though often not well organized)

Web-2.0 Page : Tagging

Pre-School Kid : I understand but maybe imprecise and incorrect

Web-2.0 Page : Folksonomy

Pre-School Kid : I can deliver and distribute messages, especially for my parents

Web-2.0 Page : Blogging technology

Pre-School Kid : Who my friends are is primarily determined by my parents’ social activities and their teaching

Web-2.0 Page : Social network

Pre-School Kid : Multiple of us can be coordinated to do something beyond individual’s capabilities

Web-2.0 Page : Web widget, mashup

Pre-School Kid : I can do suggestion based on my communication with friends

Web-2.0 Page : Collective intelligence

Following table distinguish the difference between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0

Web 1.0 is about : Reading

Web 2.0 is about : Reading /Writing

Web 1.0 is about : Publishing

Web 2.0 is about : Feedbacks, Reviews, Personalization

Web 1.0 is about : Linking Content using Hyperlinks

Web 2.0 is about : mashup

Web 1.0 is about : Companies

Web 2.0 is about : CommunityCommunity

Web 1.0 is about : Client-Server

Web 2.0 is about : Peer to Peer

Web 1.0 is about : HTML

Web 2.0 is about : XML

Web 1.0 is about : Home Pages

Web 2.0 is about : Blogs and Wikis

Web 1.0 is about : Portals

Web 2.0 is about : RSS

Web 1.0 is about : Taxonomy

Web 2.0 is about : Tags

Web 1.0 is about : Owning

Web 2.0 is about : Sharing

Web 1.0 is about : Web form

Web 2.0 is about : Web Application

Web 1.0 is about : Hardware Cost

Web 2.0 is about : Bandwidth Cost

Web 3. 0 (Semantic Web)

Web is no longer linking and tagging of information and resources. With the advent of semantic web concept, special information is attached to the resources or information so that machine can understand and read just like human.

Timer Berner Lee envisioned

“I have a dream for the Web [in which computers] become capable of analyzing all the data on the Web – the content, links, and transactions between people and computers. A ‘Semantic Web’, which should make this possible, has yet to emerge, but when it does, the day-to-day mechanisms of trade, bureaucracy and our daily lives will be handled by machines talking to machines. The ‘intelligent agents’ people have touted for ages will finally materialize.”

Semantic Web has derived from his vision of web as the universal medium for exchange of data, information and knowledge. Web 3.0 or Semantic Web is an Executable Phase of Web Development where dynamic applications provides interactive services and facilitates machine to machine interaction. Tim Berner Lee has further stated

“People keep asking what Web 3.0 is. I think maybe when you’ve got an overlay of scalable vector graphics – everything rippling and folding and looking misty – on Web 2.0 and access to a semantic Web integrated across a huge space of data, you’ll have access to an unbelievable data resource.” Semantic web is the an extension of World Wide Web in which web content is expressed in machine readable language, not just in nature language, so that user agents can read, process and understand the content using artificial intelligence imitating human behavior. In other words Semantic Web is an extension of the web where content expressed can be processed independently by intelligent software agents.

There can be several agents one can program within the context of vocabulary of the vertical domain.

For example

“Travel Agent”, who keep searching chipset air tickets based on your criteria and notify you when it gets the perfect one.

“Personal Shopper Agent”, who keeps looking for the specific product on the eBay and get it for you once it finds the one that match with all of your criterions.

Similarly we can have “Real Estate Agent”, “Personal Financial Advisor Agent” and many more.

All user is doing is just creating their personal agent which talks with the web services which are exposed publicly and there by taking care of lots of repetitive tasks.

Precisely Web 3.0 = Every human + Every device + Every Information

Characteristics of Semantic Web

1. Unlike database driven websites, In Semantic Web database is not centralized.

2. Semantic Web is the Open System where schema is not fixed as it may take any arbitrary source of data.

3. Semantic Web requires using Meta description languages such as Web Ontology Language and the Resource Description Framework (RDF). Annotation requires lot of time and effort.

Web n.0 – a Glimpse of the Future

Let me add one more element to the previous formula

Web 3.0 = Every human + Every device + Every Information = Everything in the context of current technology advancement.

Web 3.0 is still evolving and it is going to encompass everything. One can not envision anything beyond web 3.0 in the current technology advancement.

Breaking all current technological capabilities Raymond Kurzweil, the inventor of OCR (Optical Character Reader) envisioned Web 4.0 as the Web OS with intelligent user agents acting parallel to human brain. Following figure illustrate the evolution of Web along with technology advancement and the semantics of social connections. Source: Nova Spivack and Radar Networks

Conclusion

The evolution of web has gone through phases as mentioned in this article and that has introduced numerous technologies and concepts in various areas; software, communication, hardware, marketing, advertising, content sharing, publicity, finance and many more.

In a way the World Wide Web has changed the way people were used to look at things earlier. I believe this evolution is never ending and moving towards excellence.

References:

7 Most Unconventional Yet Promising Career Options for Youths

Professional courses not only help in securing a good job, but also help in grooming one’s personality. Attributes such as verbal communication, time management, asset management and self-confidence add a professional flair to the personality. Professional courses mean excellent career prospects and job security that can help you grow in your professional life to the top positions. That’s why youths in this age are more inclined towards professional courses than regular programs. Let’s find out what are the most popular professional courses in the present time apart from B. Tech and MBBS.

Career in Chartered Accountancy

Chartered Accountancy is one of the best options for students who are exemplary and outstanding in, maths and commerce. Eligibility for CA course is a degree in commerce. To successfully complete the program you have to clear three levels of examinations. The first is a proficiency test, the second is based on a theoretical program which is the professional competence course. And, the third and final is the course exam, which is the test of theory and the final stage, qualifying which you become a full fledged auditor. It could take anywhere between four to five years to complete the course after a B. Com or M. Com. All companies, whether private or public need auditors who audit accounts and file taxes. Job prospects for CA are very high and there’s a huge shortage of CAs, both in the domestic and international market.

Career in Textile Designing

The Indian textile industry is the second largest employer in the country. Textile is also one of the top contributors in India’s export basket and that’s why textile exporters draw good incentives from the Government of India. Among various career options in the textile industry, textile designing is one of the most creative, glamorous, lucrative yet challenging career option. Qualified youth with a bent of mind in designing and craftsmanship can excel very swiftly in textile designing. Ministry of Textile in India established National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT) in the 80s for the promotion and development of textile and its allied industries in India. Apart from NIFT there are many other private institutes which offer various short-term certificate courses, diploma programs and graduate as well as post-graduate courses in Textile Designing. For diploma or graduate courses, the minimum eligibility criteria is 10+2 pass or equivalent in any stream.

A textile designer should have a good sense and knowledge of colours, textures and motifs. He/she must be attentive, punctual and computer savvy, knowledge of CAD and other design software can be an added advantage for a fresher. Textile designing is not restricted to aforementioned areas rather it play a pivotal role in the fashion industry too. Textile designers can contribute immensely in the growth of export houses, buying houses, design studios, films & television studios and retail chains besides serving the conventional manufacturers in the textile, garments and furnishing industry. A fresher can easily get annual salary package ranging between Rs. 2.5 Lac to 4.0 Lac, while after a modest experience of 1.5 to 2 years one can expect 20 to 30 percent increment. In addition, the overseas market too eagerly awaits textile designers from India. A textile designer can make good money in countries like France, Japan, Italy and USA.

Career in Jewellery Designing

The unprecedented growth of jewellery industry opened many lucrative vistas for youth and those who really care about perfection, subtle beauty and a creative bent of mind can foray into jewellery designing for a stupendous career. For a great start in this ravishing sector, you need to develop innovative ideas, unique designs and powerful imaginations. The scope of jewellery designing is quite vast and it is not limited to the designing. After Graduation (BDes) one is eligible for a variety of associated fields like marketing, branding, operation management, visual merchandising, quality control, training & development, retail management, franchise development and other core services of jewellery industry.

Indian designers are in the upper hand in the international market because of their finer jewelry sense, intricate craftsmanship and unique dispositions that inherited to them generation after generation. The growth of jewellery sector is responsible for the imminent job opportunities in this highly glamorous industry.

Career in Law

In the era of globalization, law is one of the most sought-after career options for today’s youth. Opportunities for law graduates are enormous as they are in demands of the society and industries too.

Today, the Law is not restricted to the courts and corporate, it is widening with the development and changes in the society and business. 30 years back no one would have ever imagined that people in future get specialization in Cyber Law and Entertainment law. The growth of law is directly proportional to the advancement in human society. In the current scenario, law fields which are high in demand are Admiralty (Maritime) Law, Bankruptcy Law, Business (Corporate) Law, Civil Rights Law, Criminal Law, Entertainment Law and Health Law.

Career in Clinical Microbiology

Clinical microbiologists are medical professionals who study and research micro-organisms like bacteria and fungi in the laboratory with the aim of diagnosing, preventing and treating various infectious diseases. People equipped with knowledge and a professional degree in Clinical Microbiology is very much in demand these days both in the Indian and overseas market. Two of the most sought-after professional programs are Bachelor of Science in Clinical Microbiology (B. Sc.-CMB) and Master of Science in Clinical Microbiology (M.Sc.-CMB), 10+2 in any stream or equivalent is the admission eligibility for the bachelor’s level program and for masters one need to possess a degree in any one of the specialized fields such as BSCMLT /BSCBT / BSCCMB / BSCBI / B.Sc. (Biology) / B.Sc. ( Nursing) or equivalent.

Usually a clinical microbiologist performs two major tasks; first, managing and coordinating with medical technologists and consulting with doctors and physicians to anticipate their needs. Secondly, they monitor and analyze microbial culture/samples using specialist computer software and for this additional qualification in statistics, and computer science improves one’s career prospects. Personal attributes like meticulous planning skills, decisiveness, good analytical skills, IT skills, patience power and team spirit helps one to differentiate from the competitors.

A person with B.Sc. (CMB) can easily secure a pay package between Rs.25K to 35K per month while the holder of M.Sc.-CB can earn Rs. 35K to 45K per month in India. Besides, Microbiologists have tremendous job and research opportunities in the overseas market too, and countries like the US, Canada, Israel, Japan and Malaysia are the best places for these professionals to work and grow.

Career in Telecommunications Engineering

Telecommunications is the most revolutionary scientific achievement for the mankind that converted a huge planet (Earth) into a global village. Telecommunication fuelled the growth of the businesses and expedited various social and economic advancements. Today, millions of people are blessed with a lucrative job in this sector worldwide and it is one of the most stable industry in the present times. Telecommunications engineering is involved in all types of information exchange, be it telephone communications, TV and Radio broadcasting, radar signals in aviation and the Internet. A telecommunication engineer posses a blend of knowledge comprises of computer science, electrical engineering and networking.

In India, the starting salary of an individual varies from organization to organization and the name of the institute also play a vital role in one annual pay package. But, on an average a diploma holder earns a monthly salary in the range of Rs 10,000 to 20,000, while a B. Tech holder can easily secure a package in between Rs 12,000-25,000 per month.

Career in Pharmacy

There are unparalleled career opportunities for pharmacists in India as the sector is experiencing 15% annual growth rate and many market experts have predicted that soon it will supersede the IT sector. The demand of Indian medicines is rampant in America, South East Asia, Central Asia and Africa, the total export had already crossed Rs. 12,000 crore figure and many more Indian pharmaceutical companies are venturing into the export.

In modern era, pharmacists play multi-faceted roles. They contribute in clinical services, manufacturing, quality assurance, regulatory affairs and many. To play such a variety of roles, one should have good analytical skills, communication skills, interpersonal skills, coordination capabilities, humble attitude, apart from the good knowledge of various chemicals and compositions which can be acquired through a diploma program or B. Pharm and M. Pharm further hones one’s skills.